The chairperson should check that all speakers and discussants have arrived before opening the session. If speakers do not arrive promptly, the chairperson may re-arrange the order of the session presentations. Chairpersons are asked to begin the session on time. The chairperson should provide a brief introduction (name and affiliation of the presenter, names of co-authors, title of the paper).


The main program indicates the order of presentations and the discussants assigned to the papers.

The format of a session. Most sessions are divided into two parts. Each part includes two presentations and a comment by a discussant. Ten minutes is allotted for each of two presentations, then 10 minutes for the discussant, followed by 15 minutes for questions, comments and discussion from the audience. This yields a total of 45 minutes for each part of the session, or 90 minutes overall.

In sessions that deviate form this framework, chairperson makes an arrangement over duration of speaking time.


Prior to each session, speakers and discussants are asked to locate the chairperson of his/her session and are encouraged to speak to one another beforehand to clarify the procedure. It is advisable that the (powerpoint) presentation is downloaded onto the computer during the break before the session starts. The most suitable time to meet is 10-15 minutes before the session starts in the room where the session is to be held.


As the timeframe is very tight, it is very important to respect the time allotted. The chair keeps track of time and makes sure the session ends on time.  Chairpersons will be provided with cards to indicate "3 minutes remaining", "1 minute remaining" and "time is up".

Sessions will not be extended into the breaks. Exceeding the time limit means, that the following presentations will have to be cut short.

Please be considerate of your colleagues (those presenting after you and those in the audience) and adhere to the time limit.


Discussants are asked to draw out comparative or contrasting themes in the presentations and raise questions to open the discussion. This will increase the quality of the discussion.



Advanced thanks for your contributions in presenting a paper, chairing a session or being a discussant.